Since ancient times geometric and plant motifs have been used in the ornament of the pattern. There are many methods of carving, different in style, depth and complexity, but the real master owns all the subtleties and secrets of the craft. He skillfully combines dozens of varieties of decoration, creating a snow-white gypsum live composition. Sometimes it is difficult to determine where one method ends and another begins, so organically they merge in each work.
Depending on the type of ganch, its shades range from light grey to slightly yellowish, which is why the Gunchezba technique appeared on a two-colour or multi-coloured plaster. At the beginning of the 20th century, an artistic method of grooving on a mirror surface was created, giving an effect and lightness to the decor.
Generations of Uzbek masters managed to preserve and bring to the present day the secrets of their amazing craft. Much credit to this belonged to the remarkable Tashkent hereditary duck-boy Usto Mahmud Usmanov, who defended the traditional forms of decoration in modern architecture.
Nowadays, carved ganch in Uzbekistan finds the widest application as architectural decoration in the construction of houses, theatres, clubs, palaces of culture and other public buildings. In the major cities of the republic – Bukhara, Samarkand, and Fergana – they are fascinated with the ancient craft of ganch masters. ornamental plates, in which traces the desire to follow the traditions of the old architectural carvings. But there are products that seem to expand the scope of carved decor. So, dwarfs designed and executed in the material all kinds of lamps: sconces, floor lamps, table lamps. Elegant slotted ornament in these products resembles a light lace ligature. A great number of items are presented on uzikat.com, a good place of the antique.
Today the ancient elegant carving is successfully combined with modern architectural solutions. In our time, the evolution of this art form is illustrated by the decorative design of a number of administrative buildings in Uzbekistan, as well as the A. Navoi State Library, the Tashkent Hotel, the Mukimi State Musical Drama Theater, the Turkiston Palace, the Tashkent Chime Tower, the architectural pearl the capital – the State Museum of History of Temurids and other objects.
Among modern ganch craftsmen who have gained fame for their works and continue the artistic traditions of various schools – M. Usmanov, Z. Yusupov, U. Takhirov, M. Karimov, H. Abdullaev, A. Sultanov, A. Pulatov, M. Rakhmatov, Kh. Muradov, F. Khamdaev, A. Samadov, R. Ibadov, Yu. Odilov, B. Yakubov, O. Babadjanov, O. Yakubov and many others. The main centres of ganch carving are Khiva, Bukhara, Tashkent, Samarkand, Andijan, Namangan, Kokand.